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Zirconium

Zirconium exhibits excellent resistance to corrosion in most organic and inorganic solutions.

Properties
Zirconium is a reactive metal; it has a high affinity for oxygen and as such forms a protective oxide film that enables it to perform well in a wide variety of conditions.
Atomic No. 40
Atomic Wt. 91.22
Specific Gravity 6.51
Melting Point 1852˚C
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 5.8 X 10-6/°K
Specific Heat 0.066 cal/g/°K
Ultimate Tensile Strength (Room Temperature, Annealed) 55 ksi
Yield Tensile Strength (Room Temperature, Annealed) 30 ksi
Poisons Ratio 0.35
Modulus of Elasticity 14.4 X 106 psi
Stress Relief Temperature 565˚C
General Corrosion Resistance
Zirconium exhibits superb corrosion resistance in most organic and inorganic acids, salt solutions, strong alkalis and a few molten salts. The passive oxide film (corrosion barrier) is stable in both reducing and oxidizing conditions. Zirconium is excellent in both acidic and basic solutions. The temperature limit for use in air is about 450˚C to 500˚C.

This data is based on laboratory testing only. Your in-plant results may differ. Testing is recommended under other conditions as needed.
Zirconium is a reactive metal that owes its corrosion resistance to the formation of a chemically inert, tenaciously adherent oxide film. It is particularly resistant to reducing acids and strong alkalis. It is also resistant to strong nitric acid, some molten salts and is used in heat exchangers, valves, piping, reactor vessels, tanks, pumps, tower packing and laboratory equipment.

Zirconium is our most effective crucible material for fusions using sodium carbonate or sodium peroxide. It is an excellent low-cost replacement for platinum. And, based on an average of 100 fusions per crucible, it is more cost effective than less expensive porcelain or steel crucibles. The major use of zirconium remains in the nuclear reactor arena. The thermal neutron capture cross-section is extremely low so the metal acts as a window to these particles. It also exhibits good corrosion resistance to the aqueous media within the operational nuclear reactor.

Corrosion Resistance Table

Zirconium's resistance to corrosion by many materials is exemplified in the following table.  
Solution
Concentration in Weight %
Temperature in °F
Corrosion Resistance(mpy)

Acetaldehyde 100 Boiling
2
Acetic Acid 5, 25, 50, 75, 99.5 Boiling
1
Acetic Acid Vapor - 33 Boiling
5
Acetic-Glacial Acid 99.7 Boiling
5
Acetic Anhydride 99 Room to Boiling
2

Aluminum Chloride (Aerated) 5, 10 140
2
Aluminum Chloride 40 212
2
Aluminum Chloride 25 Room
2
Aluminum Sulfate 60 212
2
Ammonia Plus Water 100
5

Ammonium Chloride 1, 40 212
5
Ammonium Hydroxide 28 80
5
Ammonium Sulfate 5, 10 212
5
Aniline Hydrochloride 5, 20 212
5
Aqua Regia 3:1 170
50

Barium Chloride 5, 20 212
5
Barium Chloride 25 Boiling
5 to 50
Bromine Water Room
50
Calcium Chloride 5, 10, 20 212
5
Calcium Chloride 75% Boiling
5

Calcium Hyprochloride 2, 6, 20 212
5
Calcium Hyprochloride Saturated Room
5 to 50
Carbolic Acid Saturated 212
5
Carbon Tetrachloride Liquid Boiling
5
Chlorine (Water Saturated) Room
50

Chlorine (Water Saturated) 167
50
Chlorine Gas (> 0.13% H,0) 100 200
50
Chlorine Gas (Dry) 100 Room
5
Chloracetic Acid 30 180
5 to 50
Chromic Acid 10 to 50 Boiling
1

Citric Acid 10, 25, 50 212
1
Cupric Chloride 20, 40, 50 Boiling
50
Cupric Cyanide Saturated Room
50
Dichloroacetic Acid 100 212
5 to 50
Dichloroacetic Acid 100 Boiling
5 to 50

Ethylene Dichloride 100 Boiling
5
Ferric Chloride 5, 10, 20, 30 Room
50
Ferric Chloride 5, 10, 20, 30 212
50
Ferric Chloride 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Boiling
50
Fluboric Acid Not Recommended

Fluorosilicic Acid Not Recommended
Formic Acid 10, 25, 50, 90 212
1
Formic Acid (Non-Aerated) 25 212
5
Formic Acid (Aerated) 10-90 212
5
Formic Acid (H2O Soution) 9 125
5

Hydrobromic Acid 40 Room
50
Hydrobromic Acid 5 Room
1
Hydrobromic Acid 10 95
5
Hydrobromic Acid 20 95
5
Hydrobromic Acid (Aerated) 5 95
5

Hydrochloric Acid (Aerated) 10 95
5
Hydrochloric Acid (Aerated) 20 95
5
Hydrofluoric Acid (All) Do not use! Dissolves Readily
Hydrogen Peroxide 50 212
2
Hydroxyacetic Acid 104
5

Lactic Acid 10-100 300
1
Magnesium Chloride 5-40 212
5
Manganous Chloride 5-20 212
2
Mercuric Chloride 1, 5, 10, 55 212
1
Mercuric Chloride Saturated Room
1

Mercuric Chloride Saturated 200
1
Nickel Chloride 5-20 212
1
Nitric Acid 10, 20, 40, 69, 75 500
1
Nitric Acid 65, 75 Boiling
1
Oxalic Acid All concentrations 212
1

Phenol (Carbolic Acid) Saturated Room
5
Phosphoric Acid 5-3 Room
5
Phosphoric Acid 35-50 Room
5
Phosphoric Acid 85 100
5 to 20
Phosphoric Acid 5-3.5 140
5

Phosphoric Acid 5-50 212
5
Potassium Chloride Saturated Room
5
Potassium Hydroxide 10 Boiling
1
Potassium Hydroxide 25 Boiling
1
Potassium Hydroxide 50 Boiling
5

Silver Nitrate 50 Room
5
Sodium Chloride 29 Boiling
1
Sodium Chloride Saturated Room
1
Sodium Chloride Saturated Boiling
1
Sodium Hydroxide 10, 25 Boiling
1

Sodium Hydroxide 28 Room
1
Sodium Hydroxide 40 212
1
Sodium Hypochlorite 6 212
5
Stannic Chloride 5 212
1
Stannic Chloride 24 Boiling
1

Sulfuric Acid (Aerated) 1-60 212
5
Sulfuric Acid (Air-Free) 15 Room
20
Sulfurous Acid 6 Room
5
Sulfurous Acid Saturated 375
5 to 50
Tannic Acid 25 212
1

Tartaric Acid 10-50 212
1
Tartaric Acid 10, 25, 50 140
1
Tetrachloroethane (Water Mix) 100 Boiling
5
Trichloroacetic 100 212
50
Trichloroacetic 10-40 Room
2

Trichlorethylene 99 Boiling
5
Trisodium Phosphate 5, 20 212
5
Zinc Chloride 10 Boiling
5
Zinc Chloride 20 212
5

Mpy = mil. per year - 1 mil. = .001 inches